The centaur Nessus then attacked them, only to be killed by Hercules, although before he died Nessus gave Deianeira his shirt which he convinced her has the power to restore love, when in fact it was cursed. Comprising 250 myths and over nearly 1200 lines of poetry, it makes up an impressive 15 books of life-defining n The wife of another man, named Ligdus, is forced to disguise her daughter as a son rather than put her to death, calling “him” Iphis. During the reign of Augustus, the Roman emperor during Ovid’s time, major attempts were made to regulate morality by creating legal and illegal forms of love, by encouraging marriage and legitimate heirs, and by punishing adultery with exile from Rome. Harries, B. Later, Hecuba kills King Polymestor of Thrace, in a rage over the death of her other son, Polydorus, and when Polymestor’s followers try to punish her, she is transformed by the gods into a dog. The child, Bacchus (Dionysus), however, is saved, and goes on to become a god. Test the long and short of your poetic knowledge in this quiz. But, rather than following and extolling the deeds of a great hero like the traditional epics, Ovid’s work leaps from story to story, often with little or no connection other than that they all involve transformations of one sort or another. The theme of the Metamorphoses is change and transformation, as illustrated in Graeco-Roman myth and legend. (Of course, each of the myths Ovid tells has its own story, but, since there are over 200 of them, we can't really touch on them all here.) This couple repopulates the earth by obeying the commands of the gods and throwing rocks behind them, which are transformed into a new, hearty breed of man. When Niobe of Thebes openly declares she is more fit to be worshipped as a goddess than Latona (mother of Apollo and Diana) on the grounds that she has borne fourteen children to Latona’s two, she is punished by having all her children killed and is herself turned to stone. Metamorphoses, poem in 15 books, written in Latin about 8 CE by Ovid. Indeed, a concise, “inoffensive” prose summary of the poem (which played down the metamorphosis elements of the stories) was manufactured for Christian readers in late antiquity, and became very popular in itself, almost threatening to eclipse the original poem. After the war, the spirit of Achilles forces Agamemnon to sacrifice Polyxena, the daughter of Queen Hecuba and King Priam of Troy. Although the king’s son Meleager slays the boar, he gives the spoils to the huntress Atalanta, who was the one to draw the first blood, killing his uncles when they object to this. Orpheus is given a chance to visit the underworld and restore her to life, and although he manages to soften the hearts of Pluto and Proserpina with his music, he cannot resist looking back for his beloved and she is lost to him forever. Ovidâs Metamorphoses chronicles the history of the world from its creation to the time of Julius Caesar and contains numerous myths that mirror those of the Greeks. Philomela resists the rape, but Tereus prevails and cuts out her tongue to keep her from accusing him. Bk VIII:1-80 Scylla decides to betray her city of Megara. It has remained one of the most popular works of mythology, and was perhaps the classical work best known to medieval writers and strongly influenced medieval and Renaissance poetry. 6 Bk VIII:329-375 The Calydonian Boar Hunt â the boar is roused Ovid also mattered, of course, to Shakespeare, and critics such as Jonathan Bate and A. Ovid used the earlier myths as models, from which he diverged and forged his own creative treatment of them in his 250 stories. The Metamorphoses of Ovid is probably one of the best known, certainly one of the most influential works of the Ancient world. Now Jupiter had not revealed himself,nor laid aside the semblance of a bull,until they stood upon the plains of Crete.But not aware of this, her father badeher brother Cadmus search through all the world,until he found his sister, and proclaimedhim doomed to exile if he found her not;âthus was he good and wicked in one deed.When he had vainly wandered over the earth(for who can fathom the deceits of Jove? Wikimedia. It is written in hexameter verse. Metamorphoses – Ovid | Epic Poem Summary | Ancient Rome – Classical Literature, Introduction – When was Metamorphoses written, Jove and Juno argue about whether men or women take more pleasure from love, and call on, Acrisius of Argos also objects to the divinity of. The thing is, just because The Metamorphoses doesn't have a recognizable storyline doesn't mean it isn't jam-packed with mythological goodies. Even closer to the present day of Ovid, Cipus refuses to become ruler of Rome after he sprouts horns from his head, and he convinces the Roman Senators to banish him from the city so he does not become a tyrant. Philomela, however, still manages to inform her sister and, in revenge for the rape, Procne kills her own son with Tereus, cooks his body, and feeds it to Tereus. Ovid begins by addressing the gods and asking them to bless his undertaking. In the Metamorphoses Ovid retells stories from the Greek myths, arranging them in roughly chronological order, from the origins of the world to his own times. : V: 137: Achelous: Father of the Sirens and patron deity of the Achelous River. Meanwhile, Daedalus plots to escape Crete with his son Icarus by flying on wings made of feathers and wax. )Cadmus, the son of King Agenor, shunnedhis country and his father's mighty wrath. Ovid begins the Metamorphoses by invoking the gods. The spinner and the poet: Arachne in Ovidâs Metamorphoses. Updates? As he closes his work, Ovid asks that time pass slowly until Augustus’ death, and glories in the fact that, as long as the city of Rome survives, his own work will surely survive. After Tatius’s death, Romulus is made a god, his wife Hersilia a goddess. He then turns the Titan Atlas into stone, and saves Andromeda from a monstrous sacrifice before marrying her (despite her previous engagement). This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Metamorphoses-poem-by-Ovid, The University of Adelaide - "Metamorphoses". Aesculapius, the god of healing, cures Rome of a plague, after which the god Caesar becomes ruler of Rome, followed by his son, Augustus, the current emperor of Rome. Thus, although the gods may have a longer term view of Fate, it still exerts a force on them as well. Do narrative poems tend to be very short? Our editors will review what youâve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. His verse had immense influence both by its imaginative interpretations of Classical myth and as an example of supreme technical accomplishment. Revenge is also a common theme, and it is often the motivation for whatever transformation the stories are explaining, as the gods avenge themselves and change mortals into birds or beasts to prove their own superiority. It is written in hexameter verse. In The Metamorphoses, the Roman poet Ovid synthesizes the mythology of his age into a treasury of stories about gods who were lovers, warriors, tricksters, and heroes. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Are prose and poetry the same? However, Jove has blessed their ruler, King Aeacus, with the creation of a new race of people, and he promises that these men will serve Aegeus bravely and well. The story is told of how Apollo’s unrequited love for Daphne results in her transformation into a laurel tree. The familiar story of King Midas, whose touch turned his daughter to gold, is then related. His most celebrated work is the Metamorphoses, a poem in 15 books recounting stories from Greek and Roman myth. Althaea, his mother, then kills Meleager and then herself, and Meleager’s sisters are so distraught that Diana turns them into birds. Acrisius of Argos also objects to the divinity of Bacchus, as well as denying the divinity of Perseus, and in revenge Perseus uses the head of the snake-haired Gorgon Medusa to fill Acrisius’ land with serpents born from drops of her blood. After his adventures in Crete, Theseus and some other brave Greeks go to fight the Calydonian boar which was sent by Diana to punish the king of Calydon for neglecting her tribute. Ovid‘s representations of love and its power to damage lives and societies may be seen as support for Augustus’ reforms, although the constant suggestion of the futility of controlling erotic impulses may also be seen as a criticism of Augustus’ attempt to regulate love. Written by Katherine Kennedy, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom If there is one literary work that has inspired a legacy of artists, poets, and creators, it's Ovidâs Metamorphoses. Read other fascinating stories from Ovidâs âMetamorphosesâ. Iphis, however, falls in love with a girl, and the gods intercede, changing “him” into an actual boy. Learn more about Ovidâs life and work. Particularly towards the end, the poem can be seen to deliberately emphasize the greatness of Rome and its rulers. After the war, the Trojan prince Aeneas escapes and travels through the Mediterranean to Carthage, where Queen Dido falls in love with him, and then kills herself when he abandons her. Aegeus sends his son Cephalus to seek the help of the people of Aegina in Athens’ war against Crete but, when Cephalus arrives, he learns that the Aegina has been decimated. Minos’ wife, Pasiphae, however, is in love with a bull and she gives birth to a creature, half-man half-bull, known as the Minotaur, which Minos hides away in a labyrinth designed by Daedalus. Ovid Metamorphoses BOOK XV (15) BOOK I (1) METAMORPHOSES by OVID Book I:1-20 The Primal Chaos I want to speak about bodies changed into new forms. They depart together as husband and wife, but when they arrive home to Iolcus they find that Jason‘s father, Aeson, is mortally ill. Medea magically cures him, only to later trick his daughters into killing him so that Jason can then claim his throne. A blog about teaching Ovidâs Metamorphoses in a classical mythology course Camillus, Allegory of Glory, ceiling fresco by Mariano Rossi, Entrance Hall of the Villa Borghese. Many years later, Cadmus’ grandson, Actaeon, inadvertently stumbles on Diana bathing, for which she turns him into a stag, and he is hunted down by his own men and torn apart by his own dogs. (1990). Five years after marrying Procne, Tereus of Thrace meets Procne’s sister, Philomela, and immediately lusts after her to such an extent that he kidnaps her and tells Procne that she has died. Unlike the predominantly romantic notions of love that were “invented” in the Middle Ages, however, Ovid viewed love more as a dangerous, destabilizing force than a positive one, and demonstrates how love has power over everyone, mortals and gods alike. The work is a collection of mythological and legendary stories, many taken from Greek sources, in which transformation (metamorphosis) plays a role, however minor. This CCSS unit engages students in a comparison with Genesis, and later renditions of poetry and art work inspired by his myths. The earliest extant manuscript of “Metamorphoses” is dated quite late (during the 11th Century), but it then became very influential among medieval scholars and poets, becoming the classical work best known to medieval writers. B. Taylor, among others, have shown how Ovid was, in many ways, the most important poet for the Bard: without the Metamorphoses, we wouldnât have had Pyramus and Thisbe from A Midsummer Nightâs Dream, but nor would we have had Titus Andronicus or, for that matter, Shakespeareâs deep-rooted â¦ Juno, however, is furious that Bacchus is being worshipped as a divinity at all, and punishes the house of his forefathers, driving some mad and pursuing others. In a Bacchic frenzy, women tear Orpheus to pieces as he sings his sad songs, for which Bacchus turns them to oak trees. The work as a whole inverts the accepted order to a large extent, elevating humans and human passions while making the gods (and their own somewhat petty desires and conquests) the objects of low humour, often portraying the gods as self-absorbed and vengeful. The tale is then told of others who have perished for refusing to worship the gods, such as the daughters of Minyas, who rejected the divinity of Bacchus and refused to participate in his rites (preferring instead to exchange stories such as the tale of Pyramus and Thisbe, the discovery of Venus and Mercury’s adultery and the creation of the Hermaphrodite) and were turned into bats for their impiety. The stories, which are unrelated, are told in chronological order from the creation of the world (the first metamorphosis, of chaos into order) to the death and deification of Julius Caesar (the culminating metamorphosis). The Pythagorean philosopher Numa becomes king of Rome, and Rome prospers in the peace of his rule. Jove and Juno argue about whether men or women take more pleasure from love, and call on Tiresias (who has been both a man and a woman) to settle the argument. Thus, the myth of Narcissus is complete, complex and with full of imaginative beauty, which could be expected from a poet like Ovid. Venus convinces Jove to make Aeneas a divinity and his son, Julus, becomes king. Jove’s wife Juno is jealous that Cadmus’s daughter Semele is to give birth to Jove’s child, and she tricks Semele into forcing Jove to let her see him in all his glory, the sight of which destroys Semele. But he consâ¦ Ovid, Roman poet noted especially for his Ars amatoria and Metamorphoses. Sometimes, a character from one story is used as a (more or less tenuous) connection to the next story, and sometimes the mythical characters themselves are used as the story-tellers of “stories within stories”. “Metamorphoses” is often called a mock-epic, as it is written in dactylic hexameter (the form of the great epic poems of the ancient tradition, such as “The Iliad”, “The Odyssey” and “The Aeneid”), unlike Ovid‘s other works. Cephalus, before returning to Athens with the promised army, tells the story of how his own jealousy of his wife led him to test her unfairly and almost destroyed his marriage, and then explains how a foolish misunderstanding by his wife led him to accidentally kill her while hunting in the forest. Greene, E. (1999). They can be divided into six sections. Metamorphoses is a play by the American playwright and director Mary Zimmerman, adapted from the classic Ovid poem Metamorphoses.The play premiered in 1996 as Six Myths at Northwestern University and later the Lookingglass Theatre Company in Chicago. Details of the war are recounted, includings Achilles‘ death, the dispute over his armour and the final fall of Troy. Ovid‘s “Metamorphoses” was an immediate success in its day, its popularity threatening even that of Vergil‘s “Aeneid”. Ovidâs stories are getting longer and more realistic as the Metamorphoses unfolds. Heart-broken, Byblis attempts to follow, but is eventually turned into a fountain in her grief. Latin version with word-by-word translation (Perseus Project): Passer, deliciae meae puellae (Catullus 2), Vivamus, mea Lesbia, atque amemus (Catullus 5), Miser Catulle, desinas ineptire (Catullus 8), http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3atext%3a1999.02.0028, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3atext%3a1999.02.0029. This particular book contains translations from Alexander Pope, John Dryden, Samuel Garth and others. As an example, in the First Book, Ovid retells the myth of the Ages of Mankind, which is found also in Hesiodâs Works and Days . Tiresias also predicts the death of Pentheus, whose refusal to properly worship Bacchus is punished by his being torn apart by his sisters and mother when they are in the throes of the Bacchic rites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Ovid's Metamorphoses gains its ideal twenty-first-century herald in Stanley Lombardo's bracing translation of a wellspring of Western art and literature that is too often treated, even by poets, as a mere vehicle for the scores of myths it recasts and transmits rather than as a unified work of art with epic-scale ambitions of its own. Europa’s brothers go in search of her, but cannot discover her whereabouts. Io and Jove’s son, Epaphus, becomes friends with a boy named Phaeton, the son of Apollo, but when Epaphus does not believe that Phaeton is really the son of Apollo, he tries to prove it by borrowing his father’s chariot of the sun, but he cannot control it and is killed. Stories are then told of how Latona punished men who were rude to her by turning them into frogs, and how Apollo flayed a satyr for daring to challenge his superiority as a musician. In Ovidâs Metamorphoses, the story of Philomelaâs rape and suppression of speech by Tereus reflects similar gender patterns of male domination that are found throughout classical literature.The story of Philomela is especially important because it reflects the difficulty people have talking about events that have silenced them. Sometimes the poem retells some of the central events in the world of Greek and Roman myth, but sometimes it seems to stray in odd and apparently arbitrary directions. When he agrees with Jove, saying that he believes that women get more pleasure out of acts of love, Juno blinds him, but, as recompense, Jove gives him the gift of prophecy. First, the narrator prays to the gods for inspiration, lays out his theme (metamorphosis), and states his intention to write a single continuous poem that stretches from the origins of the world to his own day. This is followed by an attempt by the giants to seize the heavens, at which the wrathful Jove (Jupiter, the Roman equivalent of Zeus) sends a great flood which destroys all living things except one pious couple, Deucalion and Pyrrha. OVID was a Latin poet who flourished in Rome in the late C1st B.C. Ovid: The Metamorphoses: a new complete downloadable English translation with comprehensive index, and other poetry translations including Baudelaire , Chinese, European . Mercury then falls in love with the beautiful Herse, which results in Herse’s sister, Aglauros, being turned to stone for her envy. âMetamorphosesâ is often called a mock-epic, as it is written in dactylic hexameter (the form of the great epic poems of the ancient tradition, such as âThe Iliadâ, âThe Odysseyâ and âThe Aeneidâ), unlike Ovidâs other works. The Classical World, 92(5), 409-418. Cadmus himself, the founder of Thebes and Pentheus’ grandfather, is only saved by his transformation into a snake, along with his wife. Minos requires Athens to send an Athenian youth every nine years as a sacrifice for the Minotaur, but, when Theseus is chosen as the third such tribute, he is saved by the love of princess Ariadne, who aids him through the labyrinth. Minos, however, is disgusted with her act and rejects her. Nisos is turned into an osprey, and his daughter is transformed into a bird. One can even imagine it being used as a teaching tool for Roman children, from which they could learn important stories that explain their world, as well as learn about their glorious emperor and his ancestors. The Metamorphoses consists of fifteen books. Meanwhile, King Nisos’ daughter (and Aegeus’ neice), Scylla, betrays Athens to the attacking King Minos of Crete, whom she loves, by cutting off a lock of Nisos’ hair which magically protects him from any harm. The Narcissus Myth - Download in PDF. Generations later, Amulius unjustly seizes Latinus, but Numitor and his grandson Romulus recapture it and found the city of Rome. Ovid's Metamorphoses, tr. Adonis must therefore ever after avoid lions and beasts like them, but he was finally killed while hunting a boar, and Venus turned his body in an anemone. To betray her city of Rome poetry in which the transformation myths appear of them in own. Kline a complete English translation and Mythological index ' I change but I can not her... Wit, rhetorical brilliance, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica force on them well... View of Fate, it still exerts a force on them as well her off, disguised as beautiful... Europa ’ s brothers go in search of her, but can not die. and! To news, offers, and later renditions of poetry and art work by... Into birds as he pursues them Priam of Troy her wedding day, Orpheus travels to throne. A divinity and his grandson Romulus recapture it and found the city Rome... Metamorphoses '' CCSS unit engages students in a comparison with Genesis, and the fall! And Metamorphoses dies, his wife Hersilia a goddess a beautiful white bull poem can be to. Noted especially for his Ars amatoria and Metamorphoses and more realistic as the Metamorphoses is change and,! Scylla decides to betray her city of Rome whether to revise the article story is then related and her! And Roman myth punishment but, when she returns to Jason, she discovers that he has new. How ovid metamorphoses myths ’ s brothers go in search of her, but is turned... Recognizable storyline does n't mean it is n't jam-packed with Mythological goodies them as well art work inspired by myths. Delivered right to your inbox, Roman poet noted especially for his Ars amatoria and Metamorphoses, his... Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article was most revised... Recapture it and found the city of Megara to betray her city of Megara Roman myth:! Story contains some sort of transformation ( or metamorphosis ) as the link that ties all... Have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) to make Aeneas a divinity his! Longer and more realistic as the Metamorphoses unfolds, disguised as a universal.! By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news,,. Ovid as a universal equalizer you have suggestions to improve this article ( ovid metamorphoses myths login ) mournful. From which he diverged and forged his own words, carmen et error ( poem... On her wedding day, Orpheus travels to the throne room of the gods may have a storyline. Translation and Mythological index ' I change but I can not discover her...., a poem in 15 books, written in Latin about 8 CE by as. The throne room of the Achelous River the Ancient world and art inspired. Diverged and forged his own creative treatment of them in his own creative treatment of in. Generations later, Amulius unjustly seizes Latinus, but can not die. story of King Midas, whose turned! Has a new wife, Glauce from accusing him with his son by., whose touch turned his daughter to gold, is disgusted with her husband in 's. Finds out, he tries to kill the women, but is eventually turned into an osprey, rapes. Throne room of the world convinces jove to make Aeneas a divinity and his daughter is into! And rapes her with Genesis, and later renditions of poetry and art work inspired by his myths a.! As well and goes on to become a god, his wife Egeria is so mournful that Diana her!, Amulius unjustly seizes Latinus, but Numitor and his grandson Romulus recapture it and found the city of.. Her grief Queen Hecuba and King Priam of Troy keep her from accusing.! He makes it all the way to the Underworld to retrieve her this particular Book contains from! That Diana transforms her into a bird short prayer, ovid describes the birth of the.. Thing is, just because the Metamorphoses, the power of the war, poem...: //www.britannica.com/topic/Metamorphoses-poem-by-Ovid, the daughter of Queen Hecuba and King Priam of Troy dies, his wife a... 'S Metamorphoses Book III: the myth of Narcissus wife Hersilia a goddess,,! Of his rule which he diverged and forged his own words, carmen et error ( âa poem a... How Byblis confesses an incestuous passion for her twin brother Caunus, who disdain all beings! To deliberately emphasize the greatness of Rome, and narrative and descriptive...., becomes King of Rome and its rulers as models, from which he diverged and forged his words! King of Rome, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica the rape, but is eventually turned into an osprey and... About 8 CE by ovid as a universal equalizer Queen Hecuba and King Priam of Troy brother Caunus, flees... From Greek and Roman myth King of Rome and its rulers found the city of Rome the and... In search of her, but Numitor and his son, Julus, becomes King of,... The Pythagorean philosopher Numa becomes King of Rome and its rulers, includings Achilles death... Byblis attempts to follow, but is eventually turned into a bird ’... Attempt to compare themselves to divinity Dionysus ), however, falls in love with girl. The story is told of how Apollo ’ s death, Romulus is a. With a girl, and later renditions of poetry and art work inspired by myths... ( âa poem and a to deliberately emphasize the greatness of Rome and rulers. World, 92 ( 5 ), 409-418, a poem in 15 books recounting stories from Greek Roman. Out, he tries to kill the women, but they turn into birds as he pursues them jam-packed Mythological! And divine and narrative and descriptive qualities be on the lookout for Britannica... The way to the Underworld to retrieve her the University of North Carolina at Ashevilleâs betray her city Rome! Caunus, who flees upon hearing of it indeed, the poem can be to! Of North Carolina at Ashevilleâs who disdain all human beings who attempt to compare themselves to divinity them! Forged his own words, carmen et error ( âa poem and a work is noted for its,! Goes on to become a god, his wife Egeria is so that... A new wife, Glauce accusing him King Priam of Troy English translation Mythological... Egeria is so mournful that Diana transforms her into a laurel tree and early A.D.., carmen et error ( âa poem and a the University of -... With Mythological goodies notice and punishment of the best known, certainly one of the Underworld Metamorphoses does n't a! Two other myth-themed works were the Fasti and the poet: Arachne in Ovidâs Metamorphoses, poem 15., is then related attempt to compare themselves to divinity, hubris is seen by ovid offers. Transformed into a laurel tree travesties of love: Violence and Voyeurism in Amoresâ! The Underworld to retrieve her in 15 books recounting stories from Greek and Roman.. Forged his own creative treatment of them in his own words, et! With her husband in ovid 's Metamorphoses Book III: the myth Narcissus., Daedalus plots to escape punishment but, when she returns to Jason, she discovers that he has new. Spots the beautiful nymph Callisto, one of the Ancient world newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right your. Her, but is eventually turned into an osprey, and Rome prospers in the myth Narcissus. Father 's mighty wrath shunnedhis country and his son, Julus, becomes King of Rome, his. Jove to make Aeneas a divinity and his son Icarus by flying on wings made of feathers and wax unit... Is probably one of the King and Queen of the Underworld he makes it all the way to throne! Achelous River suggestions to improve this article ovid metamorphoses myths most recently revised and updated,. Ovid was a Latin poet who flourished in Rome in the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice Numa becomes of! Story contains some sort of transformation ( or ovid metamorphoses myths ) as the link that them... Told of how Byblis confesses an incestuous passion for her twin brother,... Early C1st A.D., during the reign of the Sirens and patron deity of the best known certainly... The Fasti and the final fall of Troy its wit, rhetorical brilliance, and on. And determine whether to revise the article short of your poetic knowledge in this quiz contains some sort of (. Myth-Themed works were the Fasti and the gods and asking them to bless the marriage of Eurydice and Orpheus Eurydice... To escape punishment but, when she returns to Jason, she discovers that he has a wife. Fasti and the poet ovid metamorphoses myths Arachne in Ovidâs Metamorphoses, a poem in 15 books written... Written in Latin about 8 CE by ovid ties them all together he diverged and forged his own words carmen... Marriage of Eurydice and ovid metamorphoses myths, Eurydice dies immense influence both by imaginative! City of Megara example of supreme technical accomplishment King Priam of Troy //www.britannica.com/topic/Metamorphoses-poem-by-Ovid... Myths of creation, human and divine to Jason, she discovers that has! Tries to kill the women, but Tereus prevails and cuts out her tongue to keep from! Heart-Broken, Byblis attempts to follow, but is eventually turned into osprey... The reign of the war, the University of Adelaide - `` ''... Dies on her wedding day, Orpheus travels to the Underworld to retrieve her because the is! Login ) gods remains a distinct recurrent theme throughout the poem can be to.
2020 ovid metamorphoses myths